The term Circular Economy appeared in 1989 by two British environmental economists Kerry Turner and David Pearce. The idea is to ban the linear model of taking the environment as waste container, and taking the advantages of natural life system to consider all outputs as nutrition that could be recycled by other roles in the life system continuously. This is the so-call “Circulation”.
Relevant concepts derived from circular economy are Close-Loop, Regenerative Design, Industrial Symbiosis, Cradle to Cradle, and Biomimicry. Ellen MacArthur Foundation also proposed that circular economy is composed of two resource circulation models, biological cycle and industrial cycle. By relevant technologies of industrial reuse or biological cycle, resources can be recycled in the system or safely returned to the nature to minimize systematic leakage and negative environmental impact.